The purpose behind the 10 plagues of Egypt was to force Pharaoh to let the Israelites who were slaves in Egypt go.
Moses at the burning bush
that he was to go unto Pharaoh and bring the children of Israel out of Egypt. However Pharaoh did not give Moses a positive response. Instead he made the children of Israel work harder.
Exodus 5:1-2 (King James Version)
1. And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness.
2. And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.
6. And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying,
7. Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.
The 1st of the 10 plagues of Egypt was the turning of water to blood, it lasted 7 days -
Exodus 7:19-21, 24-25 (King James Version)
19. And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.
20. And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
21. And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
24. And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.
25. And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.
10 Plagues of Egypt The 2nd of the 10 plagues of Egypt was the abundance of frogs in the land -
Exodus 8:1-6 (King James Version)
1. And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
2. And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs:
3. And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs:
4. And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.
5. And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.
6. And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.
10 Plagues of Egypt The 3rd of the 10 plagues of Egypt was lice throughout the land. It occurred after Pharaoh asked Moses and Aaron to ask God to remove the frogs and he would let the people go. But after the frogs were removed Pharaoh changed his mind.
Exodus 8:15-17 (King James Version)
15. But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
16. And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
17. And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
10 Plagues of Eqypt The 4th of the 10 plagues of Egypt was swarms of flies. The previous 3 of the 10 plagues were throughout Egypt, but from the 4th to the 10th plague the land of Goshen were the Israelites lived was spared.
Exodus 8:20-24 (King James Version)
20. And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
21. Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are.
22. And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.
23. And I will put a division between my people and thy people: to morrow shall this sign be.
24. And the LORD did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies.
10 Plagues of Egypt The 5th of the 10 plagues of Egypt was the death of the cattle. Once again, after the 4th plague, Pharaoh had changed his mind about letting the people go after Moses and Aaron prayed for the plague to be removed.
Exodus 8:30, 9:3-7 (King James Version)
30. And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.
3. Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.
4. And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel.
5. And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land.
6. And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one.
7. And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.
10 Plagues of Egypt The 6th of the 10 plagues of Egypt was boils on man and animals.
Exodus 9:8-11 (King James Version)
8. And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.
9. And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt.
10. And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast.
11. And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.
10 Plagues of Egypt The purpose behind the 10 plagues of Egypt was also to show the power of God.
Exodus 9:13-16 (King James Version)
13. And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
14. For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth.
15. For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth.
16. And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
The 7th of the 10 plagues of Egypt was hail. Before God sent the hail the people were warned to stay inside.
Exodus 9:18-21 (King James Version)
18. Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now.
19. Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die.
20. He that feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses:
21. And he that regarded not the word of the LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field.
Hail with fire - the 7th of the 10 plagues of Egypt -
Exodus 9:22-26 (King James Version)
22. And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.
23. And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
24. So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
25. And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
26. Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail.
Once again Pharaoh promised to let the people go if Moses would stop the hail, but then changed his mind. And God sent locust as the 8th of the 10 plagues of Egypt.
Exodus 10:3-4, 12-15 (King James Version)
3. And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me.
4. Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:
12. And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left.
13. And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
14. And the locust went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.
15. For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
As usual Pharaoh broke his promise and God sent the 9th of the 10 plagues of Egypt, which was thick darkness over the land.
Exodus 10:21-23 (King James Version)
21. And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
22. And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:
23. They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
After the 9th of the 10 plagues of Egypt Pharaoh not only broke his promise, but he also threatened Moses.
Exodus 10:28-29 (King James Version)
28. And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.
29. And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.
Before the 10th plague occurred God gave the Israelites instructions to keep the first Passover (Exodus 11:4-7, 12:28), so that it would not affect them.
The 10th of the 10 plagues of Egypt-
Exodus 11:1, 12:12, 29-30 (King James Version)
1. And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.
12. For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
29. And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
30. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
After the 10th of the 10 plagues of Egypt, Pharaoh was more than willing to let God's people go.
Exodus 12:31 (King James Version)
31. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.